Federal Criminal Laws

Question to answer based on the given: Could you elaborate on the mental state piece?  Is that getting to intent?

The New York State penal law encapsulates what entails computer crime. In NYS, an individual will be found guilty of computer tampering if used, accessed, or gained entry without authorization. Such access involves instructing, communicating, storage, retrieval, or usage of computer resources. Permission is one of the keywords because bypasses and fraudulent entry are not allowed. In such scenarios, guilt is when such individuals access a computer network, service, or device, and it is categorized as a misdemeanor or felony depending on the severity. Computer trespassing is in the class E felony, and it emanates from infiltrating computers with the intent to commit felonies and knowingly gaining access (Casey, 2018). In the fourth degree tampering, the individual accesses a computer without authorization and proceeds to retrieve, alter or destroy data belonging to another individual or entity. Computer tampering in such a fourth-degree is categorized as a class A misdemeanor.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Federal Criminal Laws
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

In the third degree, the individual is responsible for committing a felony, especially if they were guilty of a previous crime in the same field. Destruction of computer material and destroying data or damage that amounts to a thousand dollars is in class E felony. In the second degree, the damages should be worth an excess of three thousand dollars, guilty of damaging medical history or treatment records, and culpable of causing aggravated injury and risk. Such a second-degree crime is categorized as a class D felony. In the first degree, the individual is guilty of a crime beyond fifty thousand dollars and belongs to a class C felony (Curtis, 2021). Besides tampering, unlawful duplication is also prohibited. It is in the class B misdemeanor, in excess of two thousand five hundred dollars value; it is within class E felony. The same applies to criminal possession of computer-related material.

In contrast, Alaska also has a cyber-crimes code section 11.46.740 outlining the Alaskan cyber-crime statute. In Alaska, computer crimes are apprehended with a Class C felony. The definition is the unauthorized entry of computer data or networks with malicious attempts to retrieve sensitive data. Unlike the New York laws, Alaska’s statute is more generalized, as evidenced by the compounding of crimes. Instead of articulate specificity and distinctive description of each offense and its respective class, Alaska focuses on unique parameters such as the mental state, data encryption, or decryption and authorization. A cyber expert or an attorney would have an easier time understanding the Alaskan version because the New York code is more detailed and expansive (Doyle, 2019). One of the primary reasons for such differences is the locale and the risks involved. Both Alaska and New York have a clear definition of cyber-crime, but a felon in New York would most likely be amazed by the law’s level of clarity and detail concerning computer crimes. The simplicity of Alaskan rules makes the NYS code more potent, but both states are categorical that theft, destruction, and altercation are prohibited.

A comparative analysis reveals that Alaska and New York do not condone cyber-crime. New York is more vulnerable because of its population, location, and activity, thus the more emphasis on a broadened definition and classification of each possible computer crime. Alaska has also designated punishment for computer crimes but with less sophistication compared to New York. Regardless of the penal law structure for Alaska and New York, both are categorical that information and computer security is a priority.

References:

1. Casey, E. (2018). Digital evidence and computer crime: Forensic science, computers, and the internet. NY: SAGE.

2. Curtis, G. (2021). The law of cybercrimes and their investigations. NJ: Ashgate.

3. Doyle, C. (2019). Cybercrime: An overview of the federal computer fraud and abuse statute and related federal criminal laws. Boston: Ashgate.For more information on federal criminal laws check on this :https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_crime_in_the_United_States

Order a unique copy of this paper
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our Guarantees

At Edubaddy.com, we deliver the best essay writing service in USA and guarantee all of our customers that we deliver on what we promise.
Our team of writers is the best in the essay writing industry. We are the best college essay writing service

Money-Back Guarantee

Once you create an account with us, we will also provide you with a personal account to load your funds. We promise to refund your money if you aren’t satisfied with our products.

Read more

Zero-Plagiarism Guarantee

As the best essay writing service in USA, all of our work is 100% original and completely plagiarism-free. We use the best plagiarism checkers on all papers that our writers submit. Trust us to deliver the best original orders.

Read more

Free-Revision Policy

Whenever you submit your paper with us, we always strive to deliver the best high-quality finished orders. What happens when you receive our finished paper but are not satisfied? We offer free unlimited revisions. We also aim for nothing but to deliver only high-quality papers. EduBaddy puts quality first in all papers that we deliver to your account.

Read more

Privacy Policy

It’s important to us that our customers understand that all the information that they share with us is strictly confidential and only used to improve the essay writing services that we offer. We will never share, rent, or sell any information you share with us.

Read more

Fair-Cooperation Guarantee

It’s always important that all our clients understand and trust us to deliver the highest-quality papers. We must trust each other if we want to achieve the best end results. We always want to make sure that our customers are absolutely happy with every paper that we write for you.

Read more

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency